A Comparative Study of Gender Assignment to English Loanwords in Pashto and Urdu: Exploring Semantic Influences


  • Neelma Riaz
  • Sarwet Rasul


Gender, Grammatical Gender Assignment, Gender Marking, Agreement, Loanwords, Gender Assignment System, Semantic System, Formal System, Khattak dialect of Pashto


This study aims to investigate the methods by which grammatical gender is assigned to English loanwords in the Khattak dialect of Pashto and Urdu language. There is a considerable variation across different languages regarding gender assignment, agreement, the parts of speech affected by it, and gender allocation. Nouns can be classified into different grammatical genders using several methods. Native speakers can ascertain the gender of a certain word by using the gender assignment rules inside a grammatical gender system. This study seeks to examine the impact of semantic criteria on the process of assigning gender in loanword integration, so enhancing our comprehension of language contact events in the Pakistani setting. A study design was developed for the Pakistani setting, based on Corbett's (1991) model of gender assignment. This design was chosen for its insightful and original approach, which aligns well with the present and ongoing research. Corbett utilizes semantic and formal categories to classify the gender assignment system, which are subsequently subdivided into other sub-categories. The current investigation is of a descriptive and qualitative nature. The researcher posits that studying the interaction between English, Pashto and Urdu will not only enhance our comprehension of these linguistic processes in Pakistan but also foster a greater recognition of the necessity for further research in this domain.




How to Cite

Neelma Riaz, & Sarwet Rasul. (2024). A Comparative Study of Gender Assignment to English Loanwords in Pashto and Urdu: Exploring Semantic Influences. Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature, 3(1), 131–145. Retrieved from https://journals.airsd.org/index.php/pjll/article/view/396