Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature <p><strong>Focus and Scope</strong></p> <p>Panacea Journal of Linguistics and Literature (PJLL) is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics and literature. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference.</p> <p><strong>The journal includes, but is not limited to the following fields:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Theoretical linguistics (cognitive linguistics, generative linguistics, functional theories of grammar, quantitative linguistics, phonology, quantitative linguistics, phonology, morphology – syntax, lexis, semantics, pragmatics);</li> <li>Descriptive linguistics (anthropological linguistics, comparative linguistics, historical linguistics, phonetics, etymology, sociolinguistics);</li> <li>Applied linguistics (computational linguistics, evolutionary linguistics, forensic linguistics, internet linguistics, language acquisition and assessment, language documentation, revitalization, development and education, linguistic anthropology, neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, second-language acquisition);</li> <li>Literature theory, literary movements, literary evolution;</li> <li>Forms of literature, literary genre, oral and written literary genres;</li> <li>Literature by period: ancient literature, early medieval and medieval literature, renaissance literature, early modern and modern literature, comparative literature studies</li> <li>Literature concepts, literary critics, and literary criticism;</li> <li>Literature creation, authors, writers, editing, publishing, and literature distribution;</li> <li>History of literature, literature movements, biographies</li> <li>Discourse Analysis</li> <li>African Literature</li> <li>American Literature</li> <li>English Literature</li> <li>South Asian Literature</li> <li>ELT</li> <li>TESOL</li> </ul> Ali Institute of Research and Skill Development (AIRSD) en-US Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature 2958-8596 Analyzing Imran Khan’s Billion Tree Tsunami Initiative from Ecolinguistic Perspective: Assessing its Environmental Implications for Pakistan <p>Pakistan distinguished as a nation with high vulnerability due to the severe inadequacies of climate change. To mitigate climate change effects the “Billion Tree Tsunami Initiative” was the first attempt launched by Imran Khan in 2014. The campaign discussed and got media attention because of allegations of negligence, corruption and using the campaign for political causes by PTI. This research paper presents an interdisciplinary approach, mingling eco-linguistic discourse analysis with quantitative and qualitative analysis, to offer an inclusive assessment of the initiative's inferences for Pakistan's environment. Through eco- linguistic discourse analysis, the paper reveals the visionary rhetoric implanted in Imran Khan's speeches as well as official documents. It clarifies the initiative's promise to sustainable reforestation rehearses, exceeding mere rhetoric to represent a deep indulgent of the interaction between environmental health as well as long-term economic constancy. The use of eco-centric language strengthens a common moral duty to defend the environment, nurturing a lasting association between the citizens as well as their natural environments. A mix- method approach was applied for this study. For qualitative analysis Imran khan’s 20 speeches were selected randomly from 2014-2022 from different cities of Pakistan, official documents related to “Imran khan’s 10 Billion Tree Tsunami” and media coverage from 2014-2022. A simple random sampling was used for this study. The qualitative data was analyzed by NVivo software. The framing strategies, linguistic features, and metaphors were analyzed from Imran khan’s speeches, official documents, and media coverage. This phase compromises perceptions of the progress of the initiative’s Ecolinguistic discourse over the years. The quantitative data was analyzed by SPSS software (version 24) and Python’s Natural Language Toolkit. Key metrics and sentimental analysis of media coverage were done for the quantitative analysis of “Imran Khan’s 10 Billion Tree initiative”. The quantitative analysis comprises budget utilization, employment impact, public sentiments, and tree survival rates. The SPSS software provides the descriptive statistics of tree survival rates, and the % ages of employment rates, while Python’s Natural Language Toolkit (PNLT) presents the sentimental analysis of media coverage related to the 10 Billion tree initiative launched by Imran Khan. The data has been presented in tables and pie charts. This study will be beneficial for policymakers, activists and NGOs, international researchers, educators, media professionals, media coverage, and fostering global collaboration in ecological restoration efforts.</p> Muhammad Asif Maria Nisar Sameena Malik Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-07 2023-11-07 2 2 1 17 Gendered Communication in Higher Education: Analyzing Politeness Patterns in a Coeducational Setting <p>This paper presents a study conducted at the University of Wah, Pakistan, which investigates the use of politeness markers and strategies by male and female students within the coeducation system. Employing qualitative method, the research analyzes recorded discourses of undergraduate students to explore potential gender differences in linguistic politeness. The study's main focus is to determine whether the coeducation environment influences students' linguistic politeness. Utilizing the politeness theory proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987), the research involved 60 participants using a stratified sampling technique. The comparative analysis of three gender groups – males-only discourse, females-only discourse, and mixed gender group discourse - revealed that the mixed gender group demonstrated a higher usage of politeness markers and employed more strategies to save face for their interlocutors. Based on these findings, the study concludes that coeducation positively impacts linguistic politeness among university students</p> Dr. Khalil Ahmad Fawad Khan Fizzah Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-07 2023-11-07 2 2 18 29 Unmasking the Ecological Dilemmas: An Eco-critical Reading of Uzma Aslam Khan’s Trespassing <p>This article examines the novel Trespassing by Uzma Aslam Khan in the context of ecocriticism by conducting an in-depth textual analysis. The research exposes the complex ecological challenges inherent in the narrative and demonstrates how Khan exposes the intricate relationships between humans and their environment through the use of storytelling. The analysis provides an examination of the novel's portrayal of nature and the repercussions of human activities on the environment, thereby revealing the intricate ecological motifs that permeate the story. Especially in regards to Khan's literary work, the article emphasizes the significance of ecocriticism when analysing the dynamic interaction between literature and environmental issues. Hence, this research elucidates the evolving function of literature in confronting ecological issues and bolsters the critical standing of ecocritical analysis within modern literary scholarship.</p> Tanzeela Bhatti Nusrat Saeed Saniya Fatima Gilani Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 2 2 30 38 Exploring the Perceptions of Undergraduate University Students about their English Speaking skills in Hazara Division <p>This study aimed to investigate the perception of BS students about their English speaking skills. The study’s objectives were, to measure English language speaking skills of BS students in Universities of Hazara Division Pakistan and to find out possible reasons of weak speaking skills of English language of BS students in Universities of Hazara Division Pakistan. The population of the study comprised of all enrolled BS students in English Department of two selected universities, Abbottabad University of Science and Tchnology and COMSATS Abbottabad , Pakistan. Data was collected from 50 undergraduate students of English Department of both universities by using systematic sampling technique through a questionnaire consisted of 40 items. For data analysis, percentage and frequency technique were used as statistical techniques. Results revealed that University students generally display confidence in speaking English, expressing ideas clearly, and utilizing vocabulary, but face challenges in maintaining conversations and understanding diverse accents. Pronunciation and grammar skills are considered strong, yet fear of speaking and limited exposure hinder progress. Addressing language balance in classes, enhancing motivation, promoting idiomatic usage, and improving comprehension strategies are key areas requiring focused intervention for students to excel in English language proficiency. It was recommended that Encourage exposure to native speaker audio materials. students listen to improve pronunciation, educators can recommend and provide access to authentic audio resources like podcasts, interviews, and recordings. This exposure can help students develop accurate pronunciation and intonation to improve there language skills.</p> Adden Naseem Sana Mehmood Awais Ahmed Riaz Awan Alia Niazi Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 2 2 39 50 Investigating the Causes of Poor Listening Comprehension among ESL Undergraduate Students <p>The current study investigates the causes of poor listening comprehension among ESL undergraduate students of majoring in English at Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad (SBBU, SBA). Meeting the research objectives, the data were collected using a quantitative research method. The sample (n=204) was selected randomly, and a closed-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was based on four categories:(a) Problems related to listening text, (b) Problems related to the listener, (c) Problems related to the speaker, and (d) Problems related to the physical setting. The data were analysed through SPSS software. The study came out with these findings namely noise as a barrier, unfamiliar words, unfamiliar topics, long listening texts, lack of prior knowledge, lack of interest, complex grammatical structures, slang expressions, hesitation, pauses, the spoken text contains jargon, variety of accents, speech rate, pronunciation, and physical setting. Considering the above findings, the study suggested effective remedies to overcome poor listening comprehension issues.</p> Najay Chand Oad Asadullah Balouch Shadab Fatima Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 2 2 51 64 Identity Crisis of the Characters Escalate Protagonist’s Doom: A Psychoanalytical Reading of Arthur Miller’s A View from the Bridge <p>The current research endeavors to provide a psychoanalytical analysis of Arthur Miller’s A View from the Bridge. The interaction of Id, Ego and Super-Ego, the theoretic components of Freud’s Psychic Apparatus, brings forth various conflicts among the characters of Arthur Miller’s A View from the Bridge. These conflicts imply most of the characters are confused, uncertain, biased or devious. Mainly the protagonist, Eddie, is aberrant of his supposed social, relational and familial roles. Even though, occasionally, Eddie’s ego drives him to act rationally, most of the time, he is id-ridden, which becomes one of the major reasons of his identity crisis. Erikson’s psychosocial theory of identity crisis also provides means to analyze the reasons of Eddie’s tormented identity. Moreover, nearly every character in the play is driven either by pleasure principle, reality principle, or morality principle. This invites psychoanalytical criticism for the exposition of the main concerns of the play, like: decreased marital intimacy, incest, irrationality, aggression, conspiracy and violence. These concerns are likely to be rooted in the behaviour of the characters who seem to be either careless of what they do, or hold some self-created justifications for their actions. The imbalance in their psychic apparatus worsens the odds against Eddie. In almost all the cases, they tend to escalate tragedy for the protagonist, who, himself, appears to be a victim of wrath, obsession, fears, apprehensions, inferiority complex and broken self-image etc</p> Syed Hasnain Ahmad Jilani Omera Saeed Muhammad Ali Khan Clement John Amjad Hafeez Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 2 2 65 76 The Role of Language in Shaping Individual Identities: A Case Study of Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Shaheed Benazirabad <p>Language assumes main role in forming individual identities and in recognizing how one group is unique in relation to a different group. Though a gathering might separate itself by its ethnic and cultural types, the sort of dress its individuals wear, for their nourishment, the houses they manufacture or the gathering's, tattoos, symbols and explicit observes, the language divides individuals generally unequivocally. This paper investigated the power of language in building individual identities at Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Benazirabad context with an attention on how individuals tend to prioritize languages other than their indigenous ones to shape their identity. A very fundamental territories of this investigation were the means by which language and various factors (social, employment, economic empowerment, Educational, global discourse, success in life) are answerable for making individual identities. Data were collected from a sample of 50 students using a mixed method, because of nature of the study, data were gathered through questionnaire and open ended questions from 8 respondents to get in-depth understanding about the individual identities. The findings of this study reveals that the manner in which individuals communicate in multi languages in various settings reveal their individual identity. This study was a comprehension of the power of language in developing and constructing identities. The findings indicated that individuals' use of multiple languages in various situations is a reflection of their unique personal identity. Consequently, this study has the potential to establish a basis for comprehending the significance of language in shaping individual identities. Moreover, findings suggest that even though they love their native languages but due to different reasons they gave preferences to English and Urdu which are dominant languages in Pakistan.</p> Farah Naz Abbasi Ali Bux Khoso Iram Soomro Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-18 2023-11-18 2 2 77 88 Analyzing the role of socio-cultural Norms in Pakistani English Language Education: A case study of ESL Classroom Practices <p>Pakistani students face numerous problems as well as complications in English as a second language. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of socio- cultural norms in ESL classroom practices in Pakistani context. Because the role of socio-cultural norms usually found in each language and normally found in ESL learning. There is a gap that needs to be filled the complex interplay in the Pakistani context. By exploring the viewpoints of ESL teachers, this study purposes to fill this void and deliver valued perceptions into the role of socio- cultural norms in ESL education, subsidizing to more actual and culturally sensitive teaching practices. For this purpose, 122 teachers (females) were selected from Education University, Faisalabad campus. These students were selected randomly. The quantitative method was used for this study. A survey was conducted by using a questionnaire that comprises seven parts i.e. Section 1 is relate to socio-cultural norms, section 2 is related to language and identity, section 3 is related to ESL classroom practices, section 4 is related to Language policy and planning, section 5 is related to professional development, section 6 is related to challenges and opportunities, section 7 is related to additional comments. The data was analyzed by using SPSS software (version 24) to get the frequency of the respondents. The data was presented in tables to show the percentages and frequencies of the respondents. The conclusions of the present research support to recognition of the learning problems and matters of the ESL classroom practices in Pakistan. The result showed that role of language policies, teachers’ professional development, opportunities and challenges regarding ESL practices in classrooms in Pakistan. The study's inferences spread to the wider field of ESL education, highlighting the requirement for a rounded approach that values socio-cultural norms as a foundation of real language acquisition as well as cultural understanding. This study will be useful for education policy-makers, language teachers, curriculum developers, EFL learners, future researchers, cross-cultural communication, and ESL learners. They can overwhelm these glitches which are a continuous cause of threat for rural area learners.</p> Maria Nisar Sadia Parveen Muhammad Asif Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 2 2 89 103 Gender, Capitalism, and Environmental Degradation: A Material Ecofeminist Analysis of Octavia Butler's Parable of the Sorrow <p>Amidst a backdrop of multiple crises, academics and activists have paid significant attention to the relationship between gender inequality and unchecked capitalism, which has prompted a closer look at the ways in which these two phenomena intersect. Octavia Butlers groundbreaking novel, Parable of the Sower presents a captivating story that takes place in a United States overwhelmed, by environmental degradation, resource exploitation and the resilience of individuals, particularly women. This research embarks on a journey onto material ecofeminism focusing on Vandana Shiva’s ecofeminist framework as the guiding perspective. By applying this lens, this research aims to uncover the connections between gender, capitalism and environmental decline depicted in the novel. Through analysis of excerpts and passages this research aims to shed light on how ecofeminist themes are incorporated in the novel and how characters actions reflect ecofeminist agency, resilience, and resistance. This study not only enhances our understanding of ecofeminism in literature but also highlights the urgent need to address environmental challenges, gender dynamics and power structures, within society – both within fiction and reality.</p> Kanza Fatima Mirza Rehan Ahmad Zartash Babar Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-11-24 2023-11-24 2 2 104 117 The Perceived Effectiveness of WhatsApp as a Supplementary Tool for Enhancing English Language Skills among Master's Level EFL Learners <p>The world is dominated by technological advancement and information technology. Different fields of daily life are overpowered by such advancements. The world of education has also been dominated by technology. Use of different apps have made it to the classrooms. The study taken is to analyse the perceptions of the learners in the use of one such App known as WhatsApp in English Language Classes. The method used here is Qualitative in approach, where the selected participants were interviewed to see what they perceive of WhatsApp in their classes. Theoretical lens taken up by the researcher is Connectivism by Siemens (2008), which purports the knowledge is generated by interacting in the society. Population of the study were all the students of English language in universities. The sample selected were students of NUML University studying English language. The participants were selected randomly. It was analyzed through the study that WhatsApp is considered a very useful App in language learning. It not only enhances the four communication skills but also the vocabulary and Grammar. The role of teacher in using WhatsApp in classrooms was also considered important by the learners. However, it is also suggested in the study that more organized methods of using such apps must be introduced in the classrooms to ensure maximum productivity among students.</p> Raima Bashir Muhammad Zeeshan Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-04 2023-12-04 2 2 118 129 Insights into English Language Teaching (ELT) in Large Classes: Perspectives from Pakistani Learners <p>There is a body of work that reports the challenges of ELT in large classes from teacher’s perspectives. However there are limited studies that have discovered learner’s understanding of ELT in large classes to address this, the present study aims to explore Pakistani learner’s insight into such classes. The research study has employed a qualitative research methodology by using purposive sampling technique eight participants were selected from two universities located in Quetta Balochistan. The data was obtained through semi structured interview protocols. The finding indicates that large class sizes poses challenges for both teachers and students. Hence hampering learners’ language proficiency development given that, this study contributes by proposing both policy and pedagogical implications. Specifically, structural inequality in terms of providing resources to the general masses should be addressed. Moreover, given the constraint, teachers should be trained to handle the large classes and may be trained to employ such teaching approach and techniques which suits their context.</p> Zarmina Sharif Muhammad Zeeshan Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-04 2023-12-04 2 2 130 144 The Impure Woman: A Psychodynamic Exploration of Female Subjectivity in Kishwar Naheed’s A Bad Woman’s Story and Hélène Cixous’ The Laugh of the Medusa <p>This research provides a psychodynamic exploration of female subjectivity in Kishwar Naheed’s Buri Aurat ki katha (2009) translated by Durdana Soomro’s A Bad Woman’s Story (2010) and Hélène Cixous’ "The Laugh of the Medusa" (2009) within the framework of Freud's psychodynamic theory. The psychodynamic perspective emphasizes the impact of childhood experiences on adult personality, highlighting unconscious psychological processes like wishes and fears. The study aims to unravel the intricate psychological shifts and female subjectivity depicted in the literary works, examining how the authors employ narrative strategies to challenge traditional gender roles and societal expectations. Drawing on Freud's psychodynamic theory, the research seeks to provide a new perspective on the psychological dimensions of the characters and themes in these literary works, shedding light on the complexities of female identity and empowerment. By analyzing the psychological underpinnings of the characters and their interactions, the article aims to offer insights into how the authors navigate the complexities of female subjectivity and the impact of societal norms on individual psychology. Ultimately, this inquiry contributes to a deeper understanding of the psychodynamic nature of the female characters in A Bad Woman’s Story and The Laugh of the Medusa, offering fresh insights into the psychological complexities of female subjectivity within the context of postmodern literature.</p> Nadia Iftikhar Amara Faheem Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-04 2023-12-04 2 2 145 156 Analyzing pre and post Israel Anti-Zionism in the Backdrop of Road to Mecca and Journey into Europe <p>This study underscores analytical interrelationship of prejudiced West based upon economic, political and territorial biases which affects Jews as well as Muslim world in different genres. The study entails intertextuality between Akbar S. Ahmed’s Journey into Europe and M. Asad’s Road to Macca and compares Ibn Khauldunian tribalism that bedunis are inheritors of a very ancient civilization to Webarian colonism. It keeps its focus that politically, historically as well as post structurally each text is an intersection of other texts. The writing’s purpose is to touch the ground roots of Arab civilization and it also highlights Western contribution to territorial conflicts between Arab and Israel. The Jewish enmity in general and more specifically the Western biased attitude against Palestinians can be analyzed under the paradigm of Anti-Semitism in a befitting manner as well as to clarify that Arab Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism are two different ideologies. This study signifies the role of Saud Bin Abdul Aziz (1953-1964) and his successor Shah Faisal Bin Abdul Aziz (1964-1975) against Israel and compares it with the Western plotted Crown prince M. Bin Salman (2017-so on) implementing theory of asabiyyah. It is also highlighted that in present times the uprising anti-American feelings among Muslims are due to the unjust and unlawful migration of Jews to Arab and biased territorial division of Palestine. The targeted Muslims in the West are prejudiced just for having Muslim identity and the ratio of attacks on Muslim mosques increased after 9/11. Psychologically, socio-culturally, socio-politically and socio-religiously, this historical study examines the ideology of the Muslim world that gives new identity and direction to the West as well as their misconceptions.</p> Iqra Shaheen Khalil Ahmad Dr. Aamir Shehzad Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 2 2 157 168 Family and Intergenerational Trauma: A Comparative Analysis of Shafaq’s Honour and Lahiri’s The Namesake <p>The current study is a comparative exploration of intergenerational trauma within families and its effects on the various characters of the selected fiction namely, Shafak’s Honour (2012) and Lahiri’s The Namesake (2009). This qualitative inquiry is based on the close-text analysis of the selected passages. The theoretical framework employed in this paper borrows concepts from Familial Trauma theory. This research explores the following aspects: Firstly, it examines the intergenerational trauma within families. Secondly, it focuses on the ways the characters are left vulnerable and react to their corresponding trauma. Lastly, the research also explores the possible gender differences as a response to trauma. The research is significant in its understanding of the multi- faceted display of trauma within the generation of families and its role in shaping the life trajectories of the various characters, collectively as well as individually.</p> Saniya Fatima Gilani Dr. Fariha Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-11 2023-12-11 2 2 169 181 Trauma and War: The Psychological Implications for Survivor-victims in Iraqi Fiction <p>War-time literature about Iraq reflects the terror and the trauma that the civilian population in Iraq have had to live with in recent years. As conflicts and wars overtook the country in a rapid fashion and the state’s hold weakened, the country plunged into total chaos. The infrastructure crumpled, the economy collapsed, and multiple rebel groups surfaced halting peace process in the country. The present paper examines the fictional text, The Sirens of Baghdad, to understand the civilian psychological trauma resulting from repeated wars on Iraqi soil. The gruesome deaths and uncertainty about country’s future have contributed to an overall feeling of dejection and apathy among the civilian population. This research paper concludes that the psychological trauma of the civilian population belies simple categorization like PTSD, and there is a need to determine the true scale of psychological damage suffered over years of exposure to terror.</p> Khadeeja Mushtaq Muhammad Safeer Awan Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 2 2 182 195 Analyzing the Distinction between Freedom of Speech and Hate Speech through Discourse Analysis: A Case Study of Holy Quran Desecration in Sweden <p>The present research examined how Islam phobic discourse was represented freedom speech in guise of hate speech through two editorials from National and International newspapers. The purpose of the study is to investigate Sweden ideology behind the current Quran burning incident happened in Sweden. The study investigates the ideology and discursive strategies of desecration of Islam and their holy book time and again in Sweden in the light of editorials selected from Tribune Express and Associated press (USA) in order to analyze linguistic devices used for focusing the inequality on basis of religion and to identify reason of desecration of the holy book of the Muslims. The study is qualitative in nature. Data has been collected from two editorials by two national and international newspapers.This present research is based on Van Dijk’s socio cognitive approach (2002). The purpose of this approach is to analyze the written discourse in order to reveal discursive sources such as power, dominance, inequality and bias. Data was analyzed by employing VanDijk’s CDA model of media text (1993). After analysis, it was found that Islam phobic discourse was evualated by employing discursive strategies like semantic macro structure, meaning and coherence, global superstructure, ideology (social cognition and relation between discourse and society).The finding of analysis exposed that words like Islam phobic, desecration, Sweden’s baptism of fire and blasphemy were manipulated to emphasize the intensity of situation in Express Tribune and also revealed the true identity of freedom of expression technique to save the Sweden court and constitution of law by adopting U-turn of Sweden Police. These strategies help to identify the ideology of Swedish government and Sweden used baptism of fire to justify to be called freedom speech in guise of hate speech.</p> Tahmina Sardar Irfan Ashraf Afzala Yaseen Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 2 2 196 207 Exploring Maxim of Quantity in Spoken Academic Discourse <p>Grice’s maxim of quantity is accredited to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are presumed to contribute as much information as required for referent identification, while listeners are ideally believed to expect clear, unambiguous and concise summarization of conversation. The Maxim of quantity is exploited to explore the quantity of information delivered in classroom sessions. The data for this study is gathered from undergraduate classroom sessions of three public sector universities in Pakistan. This study explores how far Grice’s maxim of quantity is relevant in determining the quantity of information in classroom discourse and how far speakers and hearers observe and non-observe Grice’s maxim of quantity in classroom discourse. This study is quantitative as well as qualitative in nature. Words per minute uttered by the speakers and the context/atmosphere of classroom sessions are explored. The findings of the study reveal that observance and non-observance of the maxim of quantity depend on the activities performed in classrooms, the needs of the students and the context of classroom sessions.</p> Dr. Tehseen Zahra Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-22 2023-12-22 2 2 208 221 Contemporary Engagements with Decoloniality: Tracing Epistemic Disobedience and Decolonial Aesthesis in Pakistani Anglophone Literature <p>This paper seeks to discover epistemic reconstruction and reconstitution in Pakistani Anglophone literature to identify epistemic disobedience that confronts the rigidity of Western canons. In a so-called postcolonial age, the integration of indigenousness with decoloniality weaves an indigenous knowledge tapestry that may challenge hegemonic intellectual imperialism. In the last few decades, there has been a surge of interest in decolonizing epistemology. The native epistemological quest offers alternative knowledge claims that can replace hegemonic epistemology in the colonial matrix of power. It may be used to challenge the lionized image of various Western epistemologies ingrained in indigenous thinkers' minds over history. The central thesis of this paper is to examine the role of Pakistani indigeneity in providing a locus of enunciation, a context, or situatedness for Pakistani Anglophone literature to question Western canonization to decolonize indigenous epistemology. To accentuate epistemic disobedience that occurs in the wake of epistemic decolonization, this study explores Straggling through Fire by Gulam Murtaza Aatir by placing it in the theoretical framework of decoloniality by Walter Mignolo. Walter Mignolo's discernments on epistemic disobedience, locus of enunciation, and decolonial aesthesis provide a central theoretical framework for this paper to analyze Straggling through Fire by Gulam Murtaza Aatir. It paves the way for Pakistani researchers in the future to insert the versatility and novelty of our indigenous Anglophone writers in the mainstream of English literature to confront Western canonization.</p> Naghmana Siddique H.M. Zahid Iqbal Ambreen Bibi Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 222 233 The Representation of Identity and Belonging in Toba Tek Singh <p>Saadat Hassan Manto is well known for his portrayal of society through skillful integration of personal, historical, and cultural experiences. This study looks at "Toba Tek Singh," a masterpiece of Saadat Hasan Manto's fiction that provides a detailed analysis of representation of identity and belonging. A clear picture of the unrest surrounding India's 1947 split is painted in this short story. The narrative explores significant historical events as well as challenging issues of identity and belonging. This article examines the several ways in which Manto employs these ideas to express division. The themes that are emphasized are examined by exploring the surroundings, symbols, and characters. The study investigates at how the narrative emphasizes the difficulties in building an identity and trying to find a sense of belonging in a divided society due to political upheaval. The objectives of the study call for the thematic analysis. This study examines the attachment of identities and a sense of belonging to people that cannot be replaced or removed. Through a close analysis of characters, symbolism, and narrative techniques, the study unveils the complex interplay of cultural, social, and personal elements that shape the characters' sense of self and their connection to their surroundings. The research argues that Manto's portrayal of the inmates, particularly the eponymous character Bishan Singh, serves as a microcosm reflecting the broader human struggle for belonging in a world marked by divisions and chaos. The narrative skillfully employs elements of absurdity, tragedy, and dark humor to underscore the arbitrary nature of borders and the resulting displacement of identities.</p> Shahnaz Jumani Sourath Seelro Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 234 243 Investigating the Efficacy of Neurolinguistics Programming Techniques in Enhancing Vocabulary Learning of BS English Students <p>This study aims to explore the effectiveness of Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) techniques in improving vocabulary learning among BS English students at Riphah international University, Pakistan. Employing a mix method research approach, the study adopts a between-subject experimental design with an experimental group n=30 receiving NLP interventions and a control group n=30 without NLP intervention. The participants are native Urdu speakers learning English as a foreign language. The NLP techniques applied include word anchoring, reframing, mind mapping, modeling, and language pattern mirroring. Data collection involves pretest and posttest evaluations of vocabulary skills using a standardized vocabulary test. The purpose of this study is to clarify the possible advantages of NLP methods for improving vocabulary learning in the context of Riphah International University's BS English students. A pretest was used to ensure that both groups were homogeneous and functioning at the same level. The control group's pre-test resulted in mean, mode, and SD. This demonstrated that the two groups are on same level. Visual representations of the Vocabulary results include charts and statistical analysis. A posttest was created following a four-week NLP training session that included the use of mind mapping, anchoring, metamodeling, mirroring, matching, framing, and pattern disruption. The Experimental group performed better this time, which led to some somewhat unexpected findings. Because NLP operates at the fundamental level of the brain and inspires students to take responsibility for their performance, the results demonstrated how NLP approaches impacted the performance of the BS English students. This result indicates students were empowered by NLP techniques to gain self-assurance, discover untapped mental ability, become more aware of their hidden talents, and do well on the vocabulary exam.</p> Abdul Ghafoor Afshan Gul Shahzadi Muhammad Fayyaz Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 244 – 256 244 – 256 An Ecolinguistic Study of Environmental Degradation and Human Survival in Atwood’s MaddAddam <p>The current study explores environmental degradation and human survival by analyzing a dystopian novel MaddAddam. This study employs the theoretical framework of Ecolinguistics given by Stibbe (2015). Ecolinguistics explores the relationship of language and ecology. Atwood’s MaddAddam depicts environmental negligence which causes challenges to human survival. This study explores the connection of ecological degradation and genetic engineering by analyzing its discourse. The current study aims to explore the discourse of MaddAddam by Margaret Atwood, which depicts environmental degradation and evokes a sense of urgency for human survival in an eroded environment due to genetic engineering. The findings of the study reveal that genetic engineering has caused environmental degradation, which has resulted in threat to human survival in a dystopian future. The discourse of the novel develops a narrative which requires an immediate action for environmental sustainability.</p> Momna Qureshi Ayesha Maryam Asma Nazir Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 257 – 265 257 – 265 The Phonological Process in the Plurality of Pashto Nouns <p>This research aims to provide a comprehensive representation of the intricate phonological processes involved in Pashto noun pluralization. The study focuses on identifying these phonological processes, examining the patterns of plural formation, and understanding their implications for Pashto's phonological structure. To obtain the objectives of the study, the researchers collected the data from the native speakers of Pashto especially joined the elders. Along with this, the data were collected from Pashto books, magazines and dictionaries followed by the discussion of experts. The finding of the study showed that Pashto carries complicated pluralization of noun phonologically. It revealed that there are nouns having single pattern, two patterns, three patterns, four patterns and some nouns even don’t carry plural form. This complexity underscores Pashto's versatility conveying precise meanings and contextual differences through diverse pluralization forms, distinguishing it from other languages.</p> Nabila Khan Shakir Ullah Noor Ur Rahim Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 266 277 Truth and Values: A Postmodern Study of Michael Joyce’s Digital Story Twelve Blue <p>Digital stories are an emerging phenomenon to present the realities and the values of life. Truth seems abandoned when a normal life is spent and it could lead tothe destruction of values. The present study is conducted to understand the elements of truth and values in the digital story of Michael Joyce’s Twelve Blue (1996). The study is qualitative and is conducted based on the textual analysis of the story. Postmodernism theory by Lyotard (1979) is adopted under which the digital story is analyzed. The findings of the study show that the life of a female is presented beyond the truth in the stories where the truths and the values are not presented. Humans are presented as free from all forces and powers, and then they have to come under the unseen powers and forces. Knowledge and cultural values can be challenged under Postmodernism and the truth comes to know when a person is exercising terror and is unable to rewind the real truths of life.</p> Wisal Ahmad Zeeshan Ali Afsar Dr. Syed Aleem Gillani Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 278 – 286 278 – 286 Language of Resistance: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Manzoor Pashteen Speech at Asma Jahangir Conference 2022 <p>This research examines Manzoor Pashteen’s speech delivered at the Asma Jahangir Conference 2022, Lahore. The main objective of the study is to critically analyze the speech with particular focus on the use of language of resistance. The study is qualitative and the primary data collection source for this study was a fifteen minutes and 58 second speech of Manzoor Pashteen delivered at the Asma Jahangir Conference on October 25, 2022 The data was analyzed through Fairclough's Three-Dimensional Model which as per Fairclough involve―language text, spoken or written, discourse practice (text production and text consumption), and the socio-cultural practice. The research concludes that Pashteen's speech serves as a powerful tool to foster social change and bring attention to the struggles faced by the people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. By encouraging peaceful resistance, the speech empowers the audience to take charge of their destiny and advocate for a more inclusive and compassionate society.</p> Taimur Khan Khalid Iftikhar Alam Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 287 301 Exercise of Power-Stretches and Ideology: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Imran Khan’s Speech on Freedom of Media and Corruption <p>The present study is qualitative, conducted to understand the power stretches and the ideological illustration of the former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mr. Imran Khan. The study aims to understand the politicians’ discursive practices to control the audience’s thinking. Imran Khan’s “Freedom of Media and Corruption” speech is selected as the study sample. Corruption and media freedom are the core aspects used in the Pakistani political stretches through which the speakers are intended to gain the listeners’ favor. The study has adopted the framework of Norman Fairclough (1989), discussing the socio- cultural practices of the discourse through discursive strategies. The study has found that former Prime Minister Imran Khan uses discursive practices to exercise power and hegemony by selecting particular terms related to national issues. Self-positivity, self-orientation, and self-ideological supremacy are the core aspects of his speeches.</p> Rozina Bibi Arooj Sarfraz Syeda Malika Zahra Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 2 2 302 316 Seeing Education in Indonesia: How Movie Represents the Inequality in Eastern Indonesia <p>There has been significant concern and constant debate about the education inequality in Eastern Indonesia, hence seeing its representation in the movie can be a way of voicing and negotiating the unspoken. This study aims to analyse the condition of education in Eastern Indonesia which is represented in the Indonesian films supported with data from other studies and analyse the correlation of the education condition with the national policies, as well as try to formulate solutions to this problem. The objects under study were the Indonesian films set in Eastern Indonesia including Denias Senandung di Atas Awan, Di Timur Matahari, Tanah Air Beta, and Aisyah: Biarkan Kami Bersaudara. The theory employed is the concept of Spoken and Unspoken of Pierre Macherey. The study went through the following steps: 1) classifying films set in Eastern Indonesia to determine the object of research; 2) analysing the representation of educational conditions in Eastern Indonesia in these films as a form of Spoken; and 3) analysing things that are not represented with the support of data from other research results as a form of Unspoken. The results showed: 1) education in Eastern Indonesia faces problems in terms of the school buildings condition, access to support, and the lack of teachers as teachers; 2) low participation in education in Eastern Indonesia is most likely attributed to poor implementation of the national Education Law, both Law Number 2 (Year 1989) and Law Number 20 (Year 2003); and 3) solution to the problem of education in Eastern Indonesia apart from the implementational issue of the law is the provision of educational scholarships for the best “sons and daughters” from the eastern part of the Archipelago to attend teacher trainings to ensure availability of teachers for their region.</p> Rumtini Rumtini Tono Suwartono Hary Sulistyo Endang Sartika Desi Wijayanti Marufah Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 2 2 317 333 A Comparison of Urdu and Punjabi First language Interference on English as Second Language <p>This study examines errors in ESL students focusing on those who speak Urdu and Punjabi as their first languages. It uses Optimality Theory (OT) as a framework to explore the interaction between markedness and faithfulness constraints within OT. The study employs a mixed methods approach, including surveys and audio recordings from 30 participants (15 Urdu speakers and 15 Punjabi speakers). Three phonological factors are investigated; stress patterns, pronunciation of interdental /th/ and differentiation between bilabial /w/ and labiodental /v/. The data analysis, presented through bar graphs and interpreted using OT reveals nuanced patterns of errors. Notably Punjabi L1 speakers demonstrate a frequency of mistakes suggesting impact from their first language. This research significantly contributes to understanding the dynamics of language interference by shedding light on how phonological differences, among Urdu, Punjabi and English influence specific pronunciation errors. The findings hold educational ramifications for ESL teachers looking to upgrade language instructions custom-made to the phonological backgrounds of their students.</p> Mahnoor Ikram Aiman Shahbaz Muhammad Shoaib Tahir Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 2 2 334 343 Investigating the Impact of Multilingualism on Language Development: A Case Study Approach <p>This research study follows the effects of a multilingual setting on the language development of a toddler. The participant of this research grew up in a household where three languages were spoken. The case study investigates the participant's language development via observational analysis, unstructured child interviews, and parental questionnaire. The findings conclude that the respected individual’s language development progressed at a slower pace compared to normal language development patterns. Her exposure to different linguistic structures and limited peer-peer interactions affected her language development, resulting in code mixing and cross linguistic influence. Moreover, there is also a comparison of the participant’s language milestones to the normal pattern of speech development in this study. Lastly, the study concludes that multilingualism can have both positive and negative influence on language development, and early intervention strategies are recommended for children with language delay in multilingual environments. Further research is encouraged to explore the impact of cross linguistic influence on multilingualism in diverse populations.</p> Hafsa Ahsan Amna Shahid Sabeen Qureshi Mahatma Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 2 2 344 356 Exploring Alienation and Identity Crisis: Analysis of Gregor Samsa’s Human and verminous existence in Franz Kafka’s Metamorphosis <p>Franz Kafka's novella Metamorphosis has long fascinated readers with its profound exploration of existential themes, particularly the concepts of alienation and identity crisis. This research delves into the intricate portrayal of these themes through the character of Gregor Samsa, who undergoes a bizarre transformation from a human into a giant insect. Drawing from Kafka's narrative techniques and psychological insights, the research scrutinizes the alienation experienced by Gregor as he grapples with the physical and emotional consequences of his metamorphosis. Through a close reading of the text, supported by critical theory and literary analysis, the study examines how Gregor's transformed state becomes a metaphor for the estrangement felt by individuals in modern society. This paper analyzed the two phases of his life through the Lacan psychoanalytic triangle; the image, Symbolic and The Real. The study has unveiled Samsa’s major problem; his deficiency to communicate with others effectively to convey his feelings and emotions. Lacan triangle is broken from the Symbolic order in Samsa’s life as he is unable to use language and make a chain of signifiers to express his self to others. Furthermore, the research probes into Gregor's internal struggle with identity crisis, as he confronts the disintegration of his self-image and the shifting perceptions of those around him. By exploring the psychological dimensions of Gregor's transformation, the study sheds light on the profound existential questions raised by Kafka regarding the nature of human identity and belonging.</p> Humaira Sharif Iram Parveen Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 2 2 357 367 Analyzing the Theme of Forced Migration in Amit Majmudar’s Partitions through the Lens of Everett Lee’s Pull-Push Theory <p>Partitions, the novel written by Amit Majmudar, provides a vivid insight into the complex forces behind forced migration that are based on Everett Lee’s Pull-Push Theory. The novel revolves around two main characters – Keshav and Shankar whose lives are destroyed due to India’s partition in 1947. Our qualitative case study investigates numerous “pull” and “push” factors in order to understand what triggers this process of migration. The current study aims to explore by employing textual analysis and utilizing theoretical frameworks to dissect how socio-political, economic, and cultural forces define decisions made by the characters we meet throughout the story. The results illustrate the complexity of migration stories and emphasize the importance of placing individual biographies within a larger context. This effort helps in understanding deeper levels of forced migration studies and how they can influence historical perspectives and contemporary global issues, as described in this research.</p> Zuhra Aqsa Kiran Safeer Samrah Abbas Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 2 2 367 376 Interpreting the Blind Man's Garden through a Post-Colonial Lens of Ideological Racism <p>This research paper explores the novel The Blind Man's Garden through the lens of ideological racism, offering a critical analysis within the framework of post-colonialism. Written by Nadeem Aslam, the novel delves into the complex dynamics of power, identity, and the consequences of Western imperialism in the post-9/11 era. By examining the characters, plot, and themes, this paper aims to unravel the layers of ideological racism prevalent in the narrative and contextualize them within the broader spectrum of post-colonial literature. The term ‘colonialism’ is all about manipulation and oppression over the people of third world countries but post-colonialism, on the other hand is the ‘reaffirmation of colonialism’ through the narratives of colonized people. Now- a-days, post-colonialism is related to trans-nationalism which is all about diaspora and hybridity. This paper explains the same traces of hybridity and diasporic culture through the narration of different characters portrayed in the novel. Moreover, this paper also gives a clear glance of Nadeem Aslam’s novel The Blind Man’s Garden as the traces of colonialism and imperialism through the lens of ideological racism in the light of Post-Colonial theory as explained by Edward Said (1978) and Bhabha (1994). The Blind Man’s Garden, presents pain, loss and grief of Pakistani community which they suffer at the hands of colonizers after being colonized. The researcher has selected the above- mentioned text to find out the traces of post colonialism to show the basic cause of all the sufferings which Asian community had with them since long after the period of colonialism. For this purpose the researcher has used the qualitative approach to analyze the basic elements of post-colonial literature through the lens of ideological racism in the selected text. The findings of the study indicate that the selected novel exactly explains the perspectives of Post-Colonial theory with reference to ideological racism by highlighting the issues of otherness, third -space hybridity, diasporic feelings and marginality among the aboriginals portrayed in the novel.</p> Haniya Munir Dr. Mubina Talat Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 2 2 377 387 Exploring Identity Conflicts among Immigrants: A Critical Analysis of Nadeem Aslam's Maps for Lost Lovers <p>In postcolonial literature, there is often a significant focus on the experiences of exiled immigrants, encompassing feelings of isolation and a sense of rootlessness. This study aims to evaluate the identity conflicts faced by immigrants in the well-known novel Maps for Lost Lovers (2004) by Aslam. Grounded in postcolonialism as a theoretical framework with special focus on Bhabha’s notions, this research sheds light on the problem of identity conflicts of the immigrants in the English societies. It emphasizes how diaspora immigrants, positioned as outsiders, endeavor to shape their identity to align with the norms of mainstream society. The novel Maps for Lost Lovers (2004) offers a postcolonial perspective by focusing on the pitiable condition and identity conflicts of immigrants. It provides a deep exploration of identity crises, cultural conflicts, and the delicate equilibrium between the Western and the Eastern norms within immigrant families. The research concludes that Maps of Lost Lovers offers a realistic portrayal of identity conflicts of the immigrants. It also shows that Aslam is well aware of the problems of the immigrants in the western society. This research is a valuable additive to the already existing literature on identity conflict.</p> Fareeha Jabeen Dr. Mubina Talat Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 2 2 388 398