Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature <p><strong>Focus and Scope</strong></p> <p>Panacea Journal of Linguistics and Literature (PJLL) is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes original and high-quality research papers in all areas of linguistics and literature. As an important academic exchange platform, scientists and researchers can know the most up-to-date academic trends and seek valuable primary sources for reference.</p> <p><strong>The journal includes, but is not limited to the following fields:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Theoretical linguistics (cognitive linguistics, generative linguistics, functional theories of grammar, quantitative linguistics, phonology, quantitative linguistics, phonology, morphology – syntax, lexis, semantics, pragmatics);</li> <li>Descriptive linguistics (anthropological linguistics, comparative linguistics, historical linguistics, phonetics, etymology, sociolinguistics);</li> <li>Applied linguistics (computational linguistics, evolutionary linguistics, forensic linguistics, internet linguistics, language acquisition and assessment, language documentation, revitalization, development and education, linguistic anthropology, neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, second-language acquisition);</li> <li>Literature theory, literary movements, literary evolution;</li> <li>Forms of literature, literary genre, oral and written literary genres;</li> <li>Literature by period: ancient literature, early medieval and medieval literature, renaissance literature, early modern and modern literature, comparative literature studies</li> <li>Literature concepts, literary critics, and literary criticism;</li> <li>Literature creation, authors, writers, editing, publishing, and literature distribution;</li> <li>History of literature, literature movements, biographies</li> <li>Discourse Analysis</li> <li>African Literature</li> <li>American Literature</li> <li>English Literature</li> <li>South Asian Literature</li> <li>ELT</li> <li>TESOL</li> </ul> Ali Institute of Research and Skill Development (AIRSD) en-US Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature 2958-8596 Relationship between Screen Time and Children’s Language Development: A Systematic Literature Review <p>This study analyzes the complicated relationship between children' screen time and language development, to identify patterns and implications in the results of existing research. The definition of "screen time" includes both active and passive use of digital gadgets. There are worries about possible detrimental effects on children’s language development, with a focus on the decreased frequency of contact with others that are caused by excessive use of devices. The important role of the social context for the development of speech is highlighted, recognizing the growing influence of technology in both active and passive forms. A systematic review methodology is used, following protocols tailored for educational research, to synthesize findings from various studies. Diverse points of view on screen time and language development are offered by some previous researchers. The findings revealed several themes, such as the close relationship between excessive screen time and language delays, the consequences of different screen durations, and the complex ways in which smart screens affect phonological memory. In order to balance screen time and support children's healthy language development, the conclusion emphasizes the need for more research on screen content and calls for future studies on intervention techniques and educational initiatives. These findings will be helpful to educators, parents and policymakers.</p> Ika Oktarina Tono Suwartono Shofia Lina Nafisah Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-04-02 2024-04-02 3 1 1 17 Metacognitive Awareness and Utilization of Reading Strategies among Tertiary Level Students at Private Sector University in Karachi, Pakistan <p>In the 21st century, awareness regarding the usage of metacognitive reading strategies is of paramount importance, at tertiary level. Comprehension of difficult texts requires learners to possess cognizance and usage of certain strategies to counterpoise the shortcomings of not understanding the text, specifically in first time read. This research, thus, investigated the metacognitive awareness of reading strategies (MARS). A sample of 300 students was taken using purposive sampling. MARS has three basic categories: Problem-Solving, Support and Global Reading Strategies. A quantitative study was conducted on undergraduate students at private university, in Karachi, Pakistan. Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) was used as an instrument, adapted from Mokhtari and Shoerey (2002). The results were obtained through quantitative analysis using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 22; in particular, Descriptive analysis was used to investigate the perception of MARS. Findings revealed that the high level of awareness of Problem-Solving Reading Strategies (PSRS), medium level of awareness was of Global Reading Strategies (GRS) and the least awareness was of Support Reading Strategies (SRS). However, this study was limited to Private Sector University which prevents its result to be generalized. The novelty provided by the present research is relevant data in spreading awareness regarding the reading skills and strategies that are crucial in comprehension of texts. As a result, so students, themselves should continue to strive, while teachers or instructors or trainers should assist the students, in order to refine their metacognitive reading strategies (MARS) to next level and intensify their understanding and enabling them to become even confident and effective readers.</p> Shanza Fatima Naz Zahra Khan Irjah Shakoor Khan Sakina Zakir Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-04-02 2024-04-02 3 1 18 43 Incredulity towards Emancipatory Metanarrative: A Postmodern critique of Barth’s Autobiography: A Self-Recorded Fiction and Calvino’s Good for Nothing <p>Metanarratives or grand narratives pertain to ideological constructs, having a tendency to universalize human experience in terms of both oppression and freedom. Postmodernism, in this regard, takes a skeptic stance towards such ideological foundations as human constructs and hence, fictive devices which intend to divide reality in terms of binaries as true/false, real/unreal and etc. It tends to dismantle the ideological foundation of reason and human emancipation not only in terms of complete freedom and salvation for humanity but also through a sense of surveillance of oppressive and hegemonic gaze which individuals experience in a Postmodern world. Postmodernism also unsettles the manipulative designs of narratives and voices multiplicity and heterogeneity in the form of diverse ways to approach knowledge in order to subvert the practice of exclusion within the dominant narrative of reason and enlightenment. This epistemological multiplicity and heterogeneity in turn, ultimately leads towards a sense of meaninglessness and chaos in human existence i.e. Angst. The skepticism towards the ideology of absolutistic freedom is achieved through Postmodernist notion of Simulated reality that is, hyperreality. Hyperreality in Postmodern literature tends to voice the real presence of absolute unreality in the form of ambivalence between the fixed notions of real versus unreal. Moreover, Postmodernism perturbs the safe haven of absolute real through various narrative techniques like metafiction, intertextuality, historiographic metafiction and blank parody. The present study deals with the Postmodernist analysis of Barth’s Autobiography: A Self-Recorded Fiction and Calvino’s Good for Nothing particularly through Postmodernist narrative techniques. The study mainly deals with Barth and Calvino’s engagement with Postmodernist skepticism towards the metanarrative of emancipation as an illusory construct for human liberation. The study also intends to reveal that how the short stories of Barth and Calvino signify the lack and absence of unified reality and absolute freedom through narrative uncertainty and unreliability through self-conscious reflexivity.</p> Sundus Javaid Saima Umer Aimen Batool Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-04-02 2024-04-02 3 1 44 52 An Investigation of the Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Teaching of English as a Second Language <p>The main objective of this study is to explore the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) English language learners should be acquainted with the use of computers and the Internet. Technology benefits students who desire to learn English as a second language. ICTs and the internet allow English language students to utilize their language in useful and relevant ways. This research examines the role of information and communication technology in the teaching of English as a second language. It includes discussions of various tactics and strategies. These strategies include English language learning websites, computer-aided language-learning applications, chatting and email communications, software for presentations, digital dictionaries, CD players for listening, and specific video clips. This study conducted a descriptive inquiry to examine the function of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in ESL instruction among 100 TESL students from secondary schools in Lahore, Pakistan. Most of the participants agreed on the importance, advantages, and practicality of ICTs. This paper offers a few recommendations to improve the use of ICTs in ESL instruction. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data from student questionnaire surveys. For the questionnaire survey, 107 students made up a convenience sample. Pre- and post-tests were administered to evaluate the study's efficacy. The researchers personally gathered and distributed the questionnaires. Analysis of the control group, taught using conventional methods, revealed minimal improvement in post-test scores, indicating limitations in traditional teaching approaches. Conversely, the experimental group, exposed to ICTs alongside conventional instruction, demonstrated significant improvement in post-test scores, suggesting the potential efficacy of ICT integration in ESL education. The results of the study have certain implications that the use of ICT cannot be detached in any way from our lives as it works as a facilitation in our lives.</p> Zara Fatima Zara Saleem Amina Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics and Literature (PJLL) 2024-04-11 2024-04-11 3 1 53 78 Deciphering Linguistic Forms, Functions, and Pragmatics: An Eco-Linguistic Analysis of Environmental Campaign Slogans <p>Present study finds compelling evidence for the usage of verb phrases, persuading and commanding language in Eco linguistic slogans. Data is collected in the form of 85 slogans consisting of words, phrases, clauses and sentences of environmental campaigns. This research contributes in two ways: first it conducts a descriptive analysis of data consisting of environmental campaign slogans, banners, posters and images collected from television, internet and magazines through the lens of Eco-linguistics to understand their linguistic form and function. Secondly it assesses the prevalence of pragmatic aspects within slogans to gauge their effectiveness in fostering action towards environmental stewardship through qualitative analysis. Across the Eco linguistic context, slogans are analyzed by modifying a pre-established theoretical and analytical framework of grammatical rank scale by Halliday and Speech Act Theory by Searle. Finally, it concludes that slogans consisting of verb phrases are most commonly used as tools to grasp the attention of masses as well as persuasive and commanding sentences employ pragmatic implications. Numerous implications in terms of language use, form and meaning are highlighted through descriptive qualitative analysis. These findings demonstrate a significant contribution by offering a different focus to the discussion.</p> Tayyba Rashid Hajira Khalid Sair Tayyaba Khalid Ayesha Hamid Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 3 1 79 92 Exploring Colonial Legacies: Resistance and Decoloniality in Nadeem Aslam's The Blind Man's Garden <p>Imperialism is an appropriate background for exploring resistance and power relations in Nadeem Aslam’s postcolonial world. Neoliberalism carries the legacies of colonial modernity though in a new guise. The present research delves into a critical study of Nadeem Aslam’s Novel, The Blind Man's Garden (2013), through the lens of decolonial theory. The study takes the framework from the works of Anibal Quijano and Walter D. Mignolo to examine how the text engages with coloniality and exposes the legacies of Western modernity. It is a qualitative textual analysis of the novel. Through evaluation of the events and characters, the study exposes the invisible legacies of colonialism that shape reality and identity. The current study highlights the epistemological imprints on structures of the postcolonial world. The study explores the text's resistance against Imperialism and the rhetoric of modernity. The text narrative aligns with decolonial discourse of inclusivity and pluriversality by challenging grand narrative of western modernity. The study exposes the text's inherent critique of Western modernity's dark side and its exploitation of the global South. The text promotes diversity and multiplicity of cultures and epistemologies. It is significant research; it contributes to the broader decolonial discourse.</p> Mubashar Altaf Dr. Huma Batool Saima Yousaf Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 3 1 93 104 Exploring Narrative Patterns in Zubair Ahmed's Waliullah is Lost Using Labov's Sociolinguistic Model <p>The present paper highlights the narrative patterns of a Punjabi short story, Waliullah is lost, by Zubair Ahmed, through the application of a sociolinguistic model of narrative analysis introduced by William Labov in 1972. Although the model was initially developed for analysing oral narrative analysis based on the everyday discourse practices of "real speakers in real social contexts" (Sheikh, Awan, &amp; Sheikh, 2021, p. 1), linguists and narratologists have found it equally productive and effective for the stylistic analysis of short stories and fiction. After a rigorous analysis of a large corpus of natural narratives, Labov identified recurrent features or structural elements, which include (i) abstract, (ii) orientation, (iii) complicating action, (iv) evaluation, narrative clauses, (v) result and orientation followed by a (vi) coda. The application of Labov's six schemas enriches our comprehension of the story by providing insight into the author's linguistic and narrative techniques. The researchers used a qualitative method of analysis to conduct the current research. The data analysis section demonstrates how the six elements of Labov's model prove to be of productive value in understanding the narrative features in Waliullah is Lost.</p> Israr Ahmed Tanoli Farrukh Nadeem Abdul Qadeer Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 3 1 105 116 Environmental Sustainability: An Ecological Discourse Analysis to Explore Framing Pattern in the Dawn News Editorials <p>This current study aims to conduct an ecological discourse analysis to examine the role of language in framing public perceptions, opinions and actions concerning environmental sustainability in the Pakistani Dawn news editorials. This study investigates the critical impacts of language in framing environmental discourses with special focus on Dawn News Editorials how trigger words are employed in order to draw human constructive attention towards environmental equilibrium. The purposive sampling technique is employed for data collection, while this study followed a qualitative research method in order to examine the role of trigger words and their impacts on human mental model regarding ecological sustainability. Theoretical framework is developed by in cooperating Stibbe’s Framing technique and Goffman’s Frame Analysis theory (1974) in order to present a comprehensive analysis in ecological context. The integrated framework is employed for analysis because it is the most appropriate model to give the answers of this study. The findings of this study revealed that language is influential instrument that offered multiple strategic tools like framing which has the potential to change the mental models of pubic by raising awareness about ecological urgency and motivated human actions to maintain ecosystem. Hence, this study concluded that The Dawn editorials strategically used ecological framing devices in to climax urgent environmental sustainability issues, through the reflection of environmental narratives that strongly demanded public actions and revised policies.</p> Shumaila Naureen Fauzia Janjua Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-05-20 2024-05-20 3 1 117 130 A Comparative Study of Gender Assignment to English Loanwords in Pashto and Urdu: Exploring Semantic Influences <p>This study aims to investigate the methods by which grammatical gender is assigned to English loanwords in the Khattak dialect of Pashto and Urdu language. There is a considerable variation across different languages regarding gender assignment, agreement, the parts of speech affected by it, and gender allocation. Nouns can be classified into different grammatical genders using several methods. Native speakers can ascertain the gender of a certain word by using the gender assignment rules inside a grammatical gender system. This study seeks to examine the impact of semantic criteria on the process of assigning gender in loanword integration, so enhancing our comprehension of language contact events in the Pakistani setting. A study design was developed for the Pakistani setting, based on Corbett's (1991) model of gender assignment. This design was chosen for its insightful and original approach, which aligns well with the present and ongoing research. Corbett utilizes semantic and formal categories to classify the gender assignment system, which are subsequently subdivided into other sub-categories. The current investigation is of a descriptive and qualitative nature. The researcher posits that studying the interaction between English, Pashto and Urdu will not only enhance our comprehension of these linguistic processes in Pakistan but also foster a greater recognition of the necessity for further research in this domain.</p> Neelma Riaz Sarwet Rasul Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-05-30 2024-05-30 3 1 131 145 A Barthesian Analysis of the Movie Murder on the Orient Express <p>The paper aims to analyse the movie Murder on the Orient Express using Roland Barthes’ codes of narrative analysis. The work under-discussion is an adaptation of the novel of same name written by Agatha Christie in 1934. There is little work done on the visual literature from the perspective of this theory. The authors use the five codes in an attempt to uncover and decrypt the meaning of the movie’s plot. The theory for this research is Structuralism and the theoretical framework is that of Roland Barthes’. Additionally, the data for analysis i.e. dialogues are taken from the movie and rest of the references are taken from different sources across the internet. The first two codes of the theory can be used to decipher the major events and enigmas of the plot. The rest of the three are used to point out the antithetic, cultural and beyond surface meanings. The writer finds out that the plot is scriptible which means it is not easily understandable to the viewer at first glance. One has to contemplate to get a better understanding of the story.</p> Kashif Ali Asma Saleem Amir Hamza Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-06-02 2024-06-02 3 1 146 156 Challenges in Teaching English at Elementary Schools in Multan: An Analytical Study of Resource Deficiency and Classroom Dynamics <p>This study investigates the challenges faced by English language teachers at elementary schools. This analytical study employs a mix-method approach. The basic aim of this study is to investigate the challenges faced by English language teachers, to identify the effect of insufficient teaching resources on the effectiveness of English language instruction, to analyze inadequate teacher training, classroom size effect on language learning outcomes, to evaluate the role of stiff curriculum design in shaping language teaching and to assess the effect of student’s socio-economic background on their language learning development. Total population including all the male, female, elementary school’s teachers are 3oo and only 40 teachers were selected randomly. Analysis and Findings identified that insufficient teaching resources (87.5%) and large classroom sizes (80%) are the most significant challenges affecting English Language teaching, as both qualitative and quantitative data strongly corroborated these issues. Inadequate teacher training (70%) also emerged as a critical concern, followed by stiff curriculum design (75%) and socio -economic challenges (65%), which, while significant. Overall, resources availability and classroom size were the most heavily weighted variables in the analysis. Longitudinal studies, specific interventions, comparative studies are required for better outcomes in English language teaching.</p> Asia Iqbal Fariha Naz Tehreen Fatima Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 3 1 157 159 Construction of Women’s Identity through Language and Culture in Postcolonial African Literature: A Case Study of Achebe’s Things Fall Apart <p>This paper investigates how Achebe constructed the female identity of Nigerian people through Language and culture. Achebe’s novel “Things Fall Apart” is a cultural study of Ibo society, full of local words, phrases, and proverbs. The Ibo male is masculine and dominates the women by using strong masculine words, and they even beat their women on a tiny issue. The researcher has studied the factors that are responsible for constructing women’s identity in the novel and how and in what ways are Language and culture responsible for constructing women’s identity in the novel Things Fall Apart. The researcher gets some help from the difference theory of Tannen (1990) and Stuart Hall’s theory (1997), which says that there is a strong relationship between Language, identity, and cultural difference. The researcher tries to prove that the Ibo society is traditional, a masculine culture, and women are considered tools to raise children and help their men earn bread and butter. The women of Nigeria are mute, calm, nice, polite, and gentle. They show the real traits of their gender. However, the male gender seems to be more dominant in every part of the world. In the novel, we find a huge kind of gender difference in the Language of men and women. Men are dominant, whereas women are deficient. It is qualitative research, and the source of the data is the text of the novel Things Fall Apart.</p> Muhammad Ehtsham Moazzam Ali Malik Copyright (c) 2024 Panacea Journal of Linguistics & Literature (PJLL) 2024-06-10 2024-06-10 3 1 170 178