Indus Journal of Agriculture and Biology 2023-02-13T09:55:18+00:00 Managing Editor, IJAB Open Journal Systems <p>Indus Journal of Agriculture and Biology(IJAB) is an International peer reviewed open access journal that publishes articles in the field of agro-sciences, biological, ecological and toxicological Studies, Cell biology, developmental biology, genetics, biology, Toxicology, Ecology and Environmental biology, Entomology, Biotechnology.</p> <p>IJAB is a scientific journal that provides academicians and researchers a unique platform to collect and disseminate latest research on agriculture and biological sciences. The journal focuses on improving agricultural production systems, enhancing agricultural sustainability and addressing issues of toxicology and food security whilst protecting the environment.</p> <p>AIRSD started this journal with an aim to support the wider scientific community working in the field of agriculture and associated disciplines. It looks forward to provide the academicians, researchers and future generations a forum to publish their research findings and also to open new vistas for further research. It invites full papers, short communications, reviews and editorials based on Agriculture, Biology, Bio-Sciences, Ecology, Toxicology and Environment.</p> <p>Topics covered by the Journal include but are not limited to:</p> <p><strong>Agriculture</strong></p> <p>Agronomy, Aquaculture, Crop Production, Entomology, Food science, Genetic engineering, Horticulture, Plant Breeding &amp; Genetics, Plant Pathology, Soil Science, Tissue culture.</p> <p><strong>Biological Research</strong></p> <p>Anatomy &amp; Physiology, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Biological engineering, Biology, Biomedicine, Cancer, Cell and Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Ecology, Environmental science, Experimental Biology, Genetic engineering, Immunology, Microbiology, Toxicology, Virology, Animal Science &amp; Zoology</p> Botulism a Major Risk in Animals After Flood in Pakistan; A Review 2023-02-13T08:07:27+00:00 Mubarik Ali Norina Jabeen <p>Flooding has affected and will likely continue to alter the occurrence, distribution, and prevalence of animal diseases, including botulism, according to a growing body of evidence. The pathogen Clostridium botulinum is thought to be one of several species that can produce the A–H-coded botulinum toxins. These toxins (BoNT) are thought to be the most harmful elements found in nature. The poison hits nerves that are firing more frequently, which causes the pattern of damage. The toxin specifically affects synapses and neuromuscular junctions by preventing the generation or release of acetylcholine there. The majority of animals who contract botulism die from it; it affects the breathing, chewing, and swallowing muscles as well as the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, leading to flaccid paralysis and respiratory arrest. The neurotoxins types C and D produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in an animal or plant substance, during decomposition, are the cause of the condition in cattle. Failure of the respiratory system causes death. The toxin that causes botulism, also known as botulinus poisoning, is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are few available treatment options for the neuroparalytic disease botulism, which impacts the livestock business globally and has been documented in a number of nations.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Indus Journal of Agriculture and Biology (IJAB) Rhizobacterial Inoculation to Improve Wheat Growth and Soil Quality in a Saline Environment 2023-02-13T08:11:12+00:00 Muhammad Arshad Khan Nadeem Arshad Jaweria Gul Huma Aziz Muhammad Ehsan Elahi Abdul Baseer Khan <p>Salinity is the most drastic abiotic stress that reduces plant growth and plays havoc to present agriculture. This stress has impacted negatively the staple diet (wheat) resulting into situation of food insecurity. Various strategies are utilized to reduce the impact of salinity but most of them are extremely costly. Therefore, to address this issue this study was conducted using four salts tolerant PGPR isolates as inoculum to minimize salinity impact on wheat crop. Wheat cultivar AZRC-84 was cultivated in pots at Arid Zone Research Center (AZRC) DI Khan with inoculum as treatments. Wheat crops planted in saline soil benefit significantly from the development and production of plant growthpromoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). With the inoculation of all four PGPR, wheat growth in pots improved (ECe = 7.3 dS m-1 greenhouse trial), but the isolate MB3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed the greatest growth and dry biomass. All four ST-PGPR simultaneously enhanced soil health in treated pot soil compared to controls. Therefore, it is concluded that the inoculation might be a possible solution to tackle salinity problem.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Indus Journal of Agriculture and Biology (IJAB) Importance of Livestocks and Blackleg Disease Spread in Livestock After Flood 2023-02-13T09:01:58+00:00 Muhammad Jamil Mubarik Ali Norina Jabeen Jaweria Gul Naimat Ullah <p>Animals are utilized for a variety of things, including food production, companionship, and scientific research. Different products such as wool, hides, skin, and hoofs used to make different products for the benefit of human. One of the many different types of health effects caused by natural disasters that happen all over the world are floods. Floods can worsen the spread of various contagious diseases in animals in addition to the immediate risks like drowning. No reports of infectious diseases spread by floods around the world have been made as of yet. This review describes a potential illness outbreak that could happen during or after flooding.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Indus Journal of Agriculture and Biology (IJAB) Frequency of Theileriosis in Cows in Tehsil Paharpur, Dera Ismail Khan 2023-02-13T09:51:23+00:00 Arsalan Khan <p>Bovine Theileria is an intracellular parasite that infects its hosts with both severe and mild illnesses, clinically characterized by pyrexia, lymphadenitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea and ocular discharges. It is a highly economical infection therefore, this research was conducted for investigation of occurrence of theileriosis in cows in Tehsil Paharpur of Dera Ismail Khan through a hematological investigation of 384 cows during the year 2021-22. The overall Theileria prevalence in cattle was 12.23%, most of the affected population comprised females revealing 12.35% (44/356) positive cases with Theileria, while a 10.71% prevalence rate was recorded in males (3/28). Season-wise prevalence was highest (p&lt;0.05) in the summer season (19.79%), followed by rainy (14.58%), and spring (8.33%) and the lowest incidence was recorded in winters (6.25%). Age-wise prevalence of theileriosis indicated that animals of age less than a year (16.09%) were more prone to the infection (p&lt;0.05) than the age group of 1-3 years (11.79%) and above (9.41%), respectively. It was thus concluded that in Tehsil Paharpur, theileriosis was determined to be quite widespread in cattle. There is a need for additional research using molecular techniques to identify the infection's carriers, and preventative measures must be implemented to eradicate the infection.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Indus Journal of Agriculture and Biology (IJAB) Unlocking the Potential of Zinc (Zn) Efficiency for Enhanced Crop Production in Low-Zn Environments 2023-02-13T09:55:18+00:00 Faran Muhammad Muhammad Manzoor Ul Haq Muhammad Dilawaiz Khan Muhammad Shafique Shoaibullah Bashir Sibghat Ullah Alizai Muhammad Saleem Khan Muneeba Ayesha Irum Muhammad Muzaffar Raza <p>Approximately three billion people globally suffer from inadequate zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) nutrition, leading to the deaths of 500,000 children. The trend towards healthier diets has heightened awareness of mineral nutrients like Zn, which is crucial for plant growth and plays a role in various processes like enzyme activation, chlorophyll synthesis, gene expression, signal transduction, and plant defense. Zn deficiency is a widespread problem, especially in alkaline soils, as these soils cannot meet the Zn needs of crops. To increase crop yield and growth, it is important to enhance plant Zn efficiency through improved Zn uptake, transport, and utilization. The cultivation of crops that demonstrate a strong ability to uptake and utilize zinc, such as rice, beans, wheat, soybeans, and maize, holds great potential for promoting sustainable food production and ensuring adequate nutrient intake. The objective of this review is to delve into crucial aspects of zinc efficiency in plants, such as the root system's ability to absorb zinc, the role of zinc transporters, and the utilization of zinc in the shoot, with the aim of enhancing the zinc content in crops and satisfying the growing demand for food globally. Future research will aim to identify the genes responsible for Zn efficiency and optimize phenotyping for the development of Zn-efficient crop varieties, ensuring food security for the future.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Indus Journal of Agriculture and Biology (IJAB)