Botulism a Major Risk in Animals After Flood in Pakistan; A Review


  • Mubarik Ali
  • Norina Jabeen



Botulism, Clostridium botulinum, Livestock, Economic impact, Epidemiology, Flood, Pakistan


Flooding has affected and will likely continue to alter the occurrence, distribution, and prevalence of animal diseases, including botulism, according to a growing body of evidence. The pathogen Clostridium botulinum is thought to be one of several species that can produce the A–H-coded botulinum toxins. These toxins (BoNT) are thought to be the most harmful elements found in nature. The poison hits nerves that are firing more frequently, which causes the pattern of damage. The toxin specifically affects synapses and neuromuscular junctions by preventing the generation or release of acetylcholine there. The majority of animals who contract botulism die from it; it affects the breathing, chewing, and swallowing muscles as well as the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, leading to flaccid paralysis and respiratory arrest. The neurotoxins types C and D produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in an animal or plant substance, during decomposition, are the cause of the condition in cattle. Failure of the respiratory system causes death. The toxin that causes botulism, also known as botulinus poisoning, is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. There are few available treatment options for the neuroparalytic disease botulism, which impacts the livestock business globally and has been documented in a number of nations.




How to Cite

Mubarik Ali, & Norina Jabeen. (2022). Botulism a Major Risk in Animals After Flood in Pakistan; A Review. Indus Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 1(1), 1–7.