Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation <p>The Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation (PJMI) is open access, independently and objectively double-blind peer-reviewed scientific research journal freely accessible online published bi-annually. We welcome the authors to submit their Research Manuscript in our journal which aims to exchange and spread the latest researches, innovations and extended applications via online bi-annually publication. All the submitted Research Manuscript is reviewed by full double - blind international refereeing process. We invite you to submit high quality papers for review and possible publication in all areas as mentioned below. All authors must agree on the content of the manuscript and its submission for publication in this journal before it is submitted to us. Manuscripts should be submitted through online portal in Word Format only.</p> <p>The editorial team is responsible for the final selection of the manuscript after it undergoes a plagiarism test. The manuscript is then sent to national and international reviewers. PJMI editorial board reserves the right to reject any manuscript deemed inappropriate for publication. Views and the accuracy of facts expressed in the manuscripts are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the interpretations of the publishers. Each article accepted after the peer review process will be made freely available online, under the Creative Commons License ( and hosted online in perpetuity. </p> <p><strong>Scope of the Journal</strong></p> <p>PJMI covers a variety of original publications comprising of Science, Health Science, Engineering and Technology, Social Sciences, Humanities, Computer Applications and Management, Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Applied Science, Applied Mathematics, Home Science, Statistics, General Sciences, Engineering, Management Science, Agricultural, Biological Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Environmental Science, Ecology, Arachnology, Biodiversity and Conservation, Entomology, Limnology, Ichthyology, Malacology, Immunology and Microbiology, Neuroscience, Marine Biology, Food Science, Forensic Science, Zoology, Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics, Chemistry, Earth Science, Materials Science, Environmental Science, General Science &amp; Engineering, Marine Science, Allied Sciences, Biotechnology, Bioinformatics Cell biology, Biochemistry, Molecular biology, Neurobiology, Microbiology, Pathology, Cytology, Medicine, Cardiology, Endocrinology, Urology, Genetics, Pathogenesis, Rheumatology, Oncology, Immunology, Physiology, Nephrology, Neurology, Dentistry, Pediatrics, Ophthalmology, Gynecology, Hematology, Anesthesiology, Angiology, Pharmacy informatics, Analytical chemistry, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmaceutics, Medicinal chemistry, Biomaterial sciences, Bio-Pharmaceutics, Pharmacy practice, Natural chemistry, Nanotechnology, Novel drug delivery sys, Computer Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Structural Engineering, Bio mechanical &amp; Biomedical Engineering, Automotive Engineering, Electronics &amp; Communication Engineering, Environment Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, Mineral &amp; Metallurgical Engineering, Biological &amp; Bio system Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Marine Engineering, Food Technology, Nuclear Engineering, Water Resource Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Textile Engineering, Engineering Chemistry, Geological Engineering, Architecture &amp; Planning, Naval Architectural Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Nanotechnology, Forestry Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering, Oil Engineering, Applied Science, Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Gas Engineering, Ocean Engineering, Telecommunication Engineering, Mining Engineering, Forensic Engineering, Economics, Geography, Sociology, Law, Psychology, Political Science, Education, Food Science, Forestry, Genetics &amp; Genomics, Horticulture, Nutrition, Plant Pathology, Poultry Science, Soil Science, Sustainable Agriculture, Waste Management, Pharmacology, Molecular medicine, Physical Education, Social Work, Anthropology, Criminology, Economics, Gender Study, Country Study, Organization Study, Operations Research, Public Administration, Statistics, Curriculum &amp; Instruction Education, Criminology, Family &amp; Consumer Sciences, Literature, Languages, Religious Studies, Philosophy &amp; Ethics, History, Anthropology, Archaeology, Religion, Art, Linguistic, Life Skills Communication &amp; Media Journalism, Accounting, Business Economics, Business Law, Business Strategy and Economic Management, Finance, Financial Economics, Human Resource Management, Information Systems and Information Technology, International Business Management, Marketing, Taxation, Supply Chain Management, Tourism, Econometrics, Banking and Sustainability, Business Management, Human Resource Management, Hotel Management, Tourism Management, Accounting, Decision Science, Finance, Risk Management, MIS and Retail Management, Marketing Management.</p> <p>Write to us if you have any queries (Principal Contact: <a href=""></a> ) or (Support Contact: <a href=""></a>)</p> en-US Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation Analyzing Factors Responsible For Non- Acceptance of Hearing Aids <p>Hearing loss relates to missing certain sounds. The problem is certain sounds in the hearing nerve in our brain don’t get enough stimulation. The nerves need stimulation. When it is not stimulated the nerve stops working. When the nerve stops working, there arises complexity in our hearing nerves, which processes sounds that we hear. Similar to exercising which we do to keep your body healthy, our ears also need to hear sounds and recognize them to function at its best. So, the longer waiting time prior to hearing aids purchase, or to wear them, the&nbsp; less&nbsp; stimulation&nbsp; the&nbsp; brain&nbsp; and&nbsp; hearing&nbsp; nerves&nbsp; get.&nbsp; The&nbsp; speech recognition becomes worsen. Studies by WHO shows that nearly 40% of the&nbsp; age&nbsp; group&nbsp; in&nbsp; between&nbsp; age&nbsp; group&nbsp; 55-74&nbsp; yrs&nbsp; (McCormack&nbsp; A.&nbsp; &amp; Fortnum H., May2013) suffers from this type of problem. If we compare with vision impairment Hearing Impairment users do not take this matter quite seriously. The problem&nbsp; of Hearing Loss is not only restricted to senior citizens but all age groups. Once the nerve is affected, there is no way&nbsp; to&nbsp; reverse&nbsp; the&nbsp; damage.&nbsp; There&nbsp; are&nbsp; also&nbsp; other&nbsp; side&nbsp; effects&nbsp; of&nbsp; not wearing&nbsp; Hearing&nbsp; aids.&nbsp; These&nbsp; include&nbsp; higher&nbsp; risk&nbsp; of&nbsp; cognitive&nbsp; decline, forgetfulness, depression, low performance at work leading to income, less productivity and the list goes on. &nbsp;The&nbsp; factors&nbsp; which&nbsp; responsible&nbsp; for&nbsp; non&nbsp; acceptance&nbsp; are&nbsp; not&nbsp; single&nbsp; but rather they are multi faced. Starting from financial problems, Physical looks, Perception, discomfort, are some of the few reasons. In this paper has tried to identify the factors which are responsible for this challenge. There needs to be further research and findings which can provide more factors&nbsp; responsible.&nbsp; Major&nbsp; studies&nbsp; in&nbsp; this&nbsp; field&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; near&nbsp; future&nbsp; can identify many other factors which are even date beyond our knowledge</p> Anjan Niyogi Dr. Pallavi Kumari Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 1 1 1 9 Impact on Human Resource Practices During Covid 19: A Review <p>Because of COVID-19, every business has got affected; Human resource&nbsp; management&nbsp; is&nbsp; a&nbsp; core&nbsp; part&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; corporate&nbsp; world. Proper&nbsp; functioning&nbsp; of&nbsp; Human&nbsp; resources&nbsp; is&nbsp; very&nbsp; crucial&nbsp; for optimum yield in any organization, especially during pandemics. Organizations have to adopt new practices after COVID distress about which many of them were not aware of. Therefore HRM practices of all sectors need to be modified and upgraded to meet the&nbsp; need&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; hour.&nbsp; HR&nbsp; departments&nbsp; must&nbsp; be&nbsp; ready&nbsp; and conscious about what they are going to imply to cope up&nbsp; with new&nbsp; circumstances.&nbsp; The&nbsp; objective&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; study&nbsp; is&nbsp; to&nbsp; gain theoretical possibilities and required changes in HRM practices i.e. in selection, training, promotion, and performance appraisal. After a review of various kinds of literature, it is found that HRM practices&nbsp;&nbsp; dropped&nbsp;&nbsp; down&nbsp;&nbsp; drastically&nbsp;&nbsp; during&nbsp;&nbsp; the&nbsp;&nbsp; ongoing pandemic. Training programs that were planned earlier to make employees skillful are revoked to safeguard employees. Because of the unavailability of optimum resources in many organizations digital&nbsp;&nbsp; training&nbsp;&nbsp; could&nbsp;&nbsp; not&nbsp; take&nbsp;&nbsp; place&nbsp;&nbsp; effectively&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp;&nbsp; many organizations. During this global crisis, all the human resource departments should adopt e-HRM practices access and perform all HRM practices unbiased.</p> Shailendra K Rai Dr.Priyanka Rana Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 1 1 10 15 Doctors' Work Life Quality and Effect on Job Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study Based on Literature Review <p>Every day, the health-care system becomes more complicated. It is mostly due to changes in lifestyle, greater demand for patient care,&nbsp; and&nbsp; the&nbsp; effect&nbsp; of&nbsp; technology&nbsp; on&nbsp; the&nbsp; health-care&nbsp; delivery process.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sophisticated&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; devices&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; necessitate&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; specialized knowledge, which necessitates a better and more current medical education&nbsp;&nbsp; system,&nbsp;&nbsp; which,&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp;&nbsp; turn,&nbsp;&nbsp; necessitates&nbsp;&nbsp; a&nbsp;&nbsp; better organizational structure. All of this has an impact on the entire medical&nbsp; profession,&nbsp; as&nbsp; novel&nbsp; difficulties&nbsp; must&nbsp; be&nbsp; met&nbsp; with increasing skill and potential development, as well as increased dedication&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; profession,&nbsp; as&nbsp; performance&nbsp; management becomes&nbsp; a&nbsp; major&nbsp; aspect&nbsp; in&nbsp; avoiding&nbsp; professional&nbsp; hazards&nbsp; in various forms. As a result, the entire health policy needs to be updated&nbsp;&nbsp; in&nbsp;&nbsp; order&nbsp;&nbsp; to&nbsp;&nbsp; provide&nbsp;&nbsp; health&nbsp;&nbsp; care&nbsp;&nbsp; professionals, particularly doctors, with enough quality work life and improved job satisfaction in order to improve their performance at work. We try to answer these questions in our research.</p> Partha Lodh Dr Saileswar Ghosh Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 1 1 16 25 The Implication of E-commerce: Emerging Markets in Post-Covid Era <p>The&nbsp; process&nbsp; of&nbsp; buying&nbsp; and&nbsp; selling&nbsp; via&nbsp; internet&nbsp; platforms&nbsp; is referred&nbsp;&nbsp; to&nbsp;&nbsp; as&nbsp;&nbsp; E-commerce.&nbsp;&nbsp; E-commerce&nbsp;&nbsp; has&nbsp;&nbsp; become&nbsp;&nbsp; a worldwide&nbsp; trend&nbsp; in&nbsp; recent&nbsp; years.&nbsp; People&nbsp; from&nbsp; all&nbsp; around&nbsp; the world have begun to purchase things online. Mobile commerce, money&nbsp; transfer,&nbsp; inventory&nbsp; management,&nbsp; and&nbsp; other&nbsp; aspects&nbsp; of electronic commerce are included. With only a few clicks, anyone can send anything to anyone, whether it's money or presents. In the&nbsp;&nbsp; future,&nbsp;&nbsp; electronic&nbsp;&nbsp; commerce&nbsp;&nbsp; might&nbsp;&nbsp; have&nbsp;&nbsp; a&nbsp;&nbsp; significant economic&nbsp; impact.&nbsp; Internet&nbsp; business &nbsp;will&nbsp; permanently&nbsp; alter&nbsp; the face&nbsp; of&nbsp; business.&nbsp; Furthermore,&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; twenty-first&nbsp; century,&nbsp; E-commerce will transform banking. E-commerce has had a wide range&nbsp; of&nbsp; effects&nbsp; on&nbsp; the&nbsp; increasing&nbsp; global&nbsp; economy.&nbsp; First&nbsp; and foremost,&nbsp;&nbsp; it&nbsp; has&nbsp; impacted&nbsp; information&nbsp; technology&nbsp; and&nbsp; all commercial&nbsp; segments;&nbsp; above&nbsp; all,&nbsp; E-commerce&nbsp; has&nbsp; boosted global production growth and its impact are too high. They are able to determine the number of professionals needed to develop their&nbsp; country's&nbsp; knowledge&nbsp; economy,&nbsp; as&nbsp; well&nbsp; as&nbsp; compute&nbsp; the quantity&nbsp; of&nbsp; investment&nbsp; required&nbsp; to&nbsp; provide&nbsp; businesses&nbsp; with internet access. Some benefits are now in a position to compare their economies to those of their international competitors, and there are numerous ways to boost productivity growth in present emerging markets.</p> Akriti Kumari Nasif Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 1 1 26 36 A Critical Appraisal of Tax Evasion as Predicate Offence for Money Laundering <p>Tax evasion and money laundering are two global problems that are&nbsp; devastatingly&nbsp; impacting&nbsp; the&nbsp; global&nbsp; economy,&nbsp; economic security, stability, and economic growth. The primary objective of&nbsp; this&nbsp; paper&nbsp; is&nbsp; to&nbsp; examine&nbsp; the&nbsp; link&nbsp; between&nbsp; tax&nbsp; evasion&nbsp; and money&nbsp; laundering&nbsp; by&nbsp; looking&nbsp; at&nbsp; their&nbsp; historical&nbsp; origins,&nbsp; basic features,&nbsp;&nbsp; strategies,&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; economic&nbsp;&nbsp; repercussions.&nbsp;&nbsp; Money laundering and evasion of taxes are organised financial crimes that&nbsp; are&nbsp; related&nbsp; to&nbsp; one&nbsp; other,&nbsp; either&nbsp; explicitly&nbsp; or&nbsp; implicitly.&nbsp; Laundering of money was once thought to be solely involved with trafficking of drugs and financing of terrorist activities. At this moment,&nbsp; it&nbsp; has&nbsp; also&nbsp; been&nbsp; connected&nbsp; to&nbsp; tax&nbsp; evasion.&nbsp; The connection&nbsp; between&nbsp; both&nbsp; crimes&nbsp; is&nbsp; not&nbsp; well&nbsp; understood.&nbsp; Tax evasion is regarded a predicate offence for laundering money in certain jurisdictions, whereas it is not in others. This study finds that evasion of taxes is one of the most common motivations for laundering&nbsp; money&nbsp; activities.&nbsp; Furthermore,&nbsp; in&nbsp; order&nbsp; to&nbsp; address these activities more effectively, this article suggests recognising tax&nbsp; evasion&nbsp; as&nbsp; a&nbsp; recognised&nbsp; predicate&nbsp; crime&nbsp; for&nbsp; laundering money.</p> Aamir Khan Dr. Naureen Akhtar Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation 2022-03-22 2022-03-22 1 1 37 44 Effect of Gums on the Quality Parameters of Low Fat Yoghurt <p>Milk is basic component of diet of millions of people around the globe. Milk helps the development of cell growth and digestive tube in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of a baby. Proteins, bioactive saccharides&nbsp; and&nbsp; lipids&nbsp; are&nbsp; essential&nbsp; nutrients&nbsp; of&nbsp; milk&nbsp; which contribution to control the growth of gastrointestinal system of human body. Consumption of Industrially-produced Tran’s fatty acids&nbsp; (IPTFAs)&nbsp; has&nbsp; various&nbsp; adverse&nbsp; health&nbsp; hazard.&nbsp; High&nbsp; fat contents because serious illness such as high cholesterol level, arthritis, memory loss, weight gain and obesity which leads to cardiovascular problems. Low fat yoghurt is a vigorous healthy choice for consumer due to its different functional and biological properties. Low fat products are demand of all eras but fell short due to low quality. The current study was objective to prepare the low fat yoghurt by using hydrocolloids like different types of gums such as guar gum at the ratio 0.1, 0.3, 0.5% and xanthan gum&nbsp; 0.1,&nbsp; 0.3,&nbsp; 0.5%&nbsp; and&nbsp; evaluation&nbsp; of&nbsp; various&nbsp; compositional analysis,&nbsp;&nbsp; physiochemical&nbsp;&nbsp; properties,&nbsp;&nbsp; texture&nbsp;&nbsp; analysis&nbsp;&nbsp; and sensory profile. During research, result showed that in low fat yoghurt&nbsp; during&nbsp; storage&nbsp; period&nbsp; acidity&nbsp; decreases&nbsp; while&nbsp; pH remained constant. However, synersis of product was increased among storage period on the other hand water holding capacity was decreased. As a texture it was observed that addition of guar gum&nbsp; and&nbsp; xanthan&nbsp; gum&nbsp; with&nbsp; concentration&nbsp; 0.1%&nbsp; was&nbsp; good&nbsp; as compared to 0.5% concentration.</p> Mahammad Zahid Sattar Zaeem Uzair Zaeem Shan Mahnoor Saleem Muhammad Amir Sohail Shamas Murtaza Muhammad Shahbaz Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 1 1 45 57 Awareness of Osteoarthritis among Housewives of Pakistan <p>Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common articular disorder that causes chronic disability because of the progressive resorption of bone and cartilage and results in joint failure specifically in elder population. Its incident rate varies according to region and ethnicity. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 191 housewives belonging&nbsp; to&nbsp; Lahore,Islamabad&nbsp; and&nbsp; other&nbsp; major&nbsp; cities&nbsp; of Pakistan in 2017 to assess the awareness level of OA. Data were collected&nbsp; through&nbsp; a&nbsp; structured&nbsp; questionnaire&nbsp; that&nbsp; included personal&nbsp;&nbsp; details&nbsp;&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; participants,&nbsp;&nbsp; their&nbsp;&nbsp; awareness&nbsp;&nbsp; about osteoarthritis, its causes,&nbsp; treatment,&nbsp; and its effects.&nbsp; Then, data were&nbsp; analyzed&nbsp; by&nbsp; using&nbsp; SPSS&nbsp; and&nbsp; appropriate&nbsp; statistical&nbsp; tests like Chi-squaredfor different variables.&nbsp; Almost 40% of the population sample belonged to 30-40 years of age group. Overall, about 39% participants had awarenessabout various&nbsp; aspects&nbsp; of&nbsp; OA&nbsp; and&nbsp; 57%&nbsp; individual&nbsp; had&nbsp; the awareness about the general information of OA. Awareness about factors affecting the OA condition was the lowest, only 24% individuals had&nbsp; the&nbsp; self-awareness&nbsp; about&nbsp; this.&nbsp; In&nbsp; this&nbsp; study,&nbsp; there&nbsp; was&nbsp; no significant association between the aspects about the awareness of OA with different age groups.&nbsp; Most housewives of Lahore and other areas of Pakistan had poor to&nbsp; moderate&nbsp; awareness&nbsp; of&nbsp; OA.&nbsp; Proper&nbsp; awareness&nbsp; of&nbsp; OA&nbsp; will result&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; better&nbsp; understanding&nbsp; of&nbsp; promising&nbsp; management modalities for the treatment of OA.</p> Hafiza Aasia Malik Dr. Sheharyar Saleem Noor-ul-ain Fatima Hina Khan Sidra Bakhtawar Dr. Sana Hanif Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Multidisciplinary Innovation 2022-03-29 2022-03-29 1 1 58 69